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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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General Description. The Hidden Glacier was named by Russell* in 1891 when he was exploring Russell Fiord and "sailed slowly southward before an uncertain breeze, and about five miles south of Cape Enchantment saw a deep opening in the steep bluffs forming the eastern wall of the valley. A curve in the shore there forms a shallow bay, at the head of which there is a break in the hills, and we could look into the mouth of the canon-like valley which comes down to the water with a very low grade, and is occupied a short distance within by the end of a good-sized glacier. Only glimpses of this interesting valley and of the glacier which it shelters, named Hidden Glacier, could be had as we passed."
This glacier was photographed and roughly mapped by the Canadian Boundary Survey in 1895 a and in 1899 Gilbert and Gannett, of the Harriman Expedition, studied and mapped Hidden Glacier,8 which was revisited and studied by us in 1905,1906, 1909, 1910, and 1913.* No doubt the name Hidden suggested itself to Russell because the glacier was not visible as he sailed up the fiord, excepting from one point of view. Down to 1906 Hidden Glacier retained the same general position, its front being separated from the fiord by an outwash gravel plain a little over two miles in length, terminating in a branching, muddy delta front at the head of a small bay called Seal Bay by the natives; but between 1906 and 1909 the glacier changed greatly. For comparison of Hidden Glacier as subsequently observed by us, as well as for comparison with its condition when studied by Gilbert in 1899, we will describe its appearance in 1905 in some detail.
The upper parts of Hidden Glacier are better known than any of the other large glaciers of Yakutat Bay. The maps of the Canadian and American boundary surveyors (Fig. 18) show it to be a through glacier connected toward the east with one or more glaciers tributary to the Alsek valley, on the north with the upper portions of the Nunatak Glacier, and on the south with the upper portions of the Fourth and Yakutat Glaciers. We do not know from direct observation what the condition of the glacier tributaries may be, nor their size or number; but the inactivity of Hidden Glacier in 1899, 1905, and 1906, and the condition and position of the glacier front suggests that there is a limited supply of ice. In 1905 the glacier was about a mile in width at its
i Russell, I. C., Second Expedition to Mt. St. Elias, 18th Ann. Kept., U. S. Geol. Survey, 1892, p. 87.
i Atlas of Award, A1aflV/vn Boundary Tribunal, Sheet 81.
'Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. HI, 1904, pp. 58-58 and Fl. IV.
' Tarr, H. S. and Martin, Lawrence, Glaciers and Glaciation of Yakutat Bay, Alaska, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. XXXVm, 1906, pp. 150, 151; Tarr, R. S., The Yakutat Bay Region, Alaska, Professional Paper 64, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1909, pp. 59-04; Tarr, R. S. and Martin, La-wrence, The National Geographic Society's Alaskan Expedition of 1909, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XXI. 1910, pp. 26-28, 42, 48, 45.